Sunday, April 17, 2005

List of Terms

Vairagya: dispassion = detatchment
Moksha: Liberation
utpatti: creation
sthiti: phenomenal or illusory aspect of all manifestations
upashanti: quiescence of mind
upadesh: instructions
jagrat: ordinary/waking state
swapna: the dream state
sushupti: deep-sleep state
triputi: the doer, the cause and the effect
- Vishnu
- Brahma
- Rudra
sankalpas: ideations
sankalpa: idea

The mind is whatever is concieved or percieved - it is also known as sankalpa (idea), Smiriti - memory and avidya - ignorance

This ideational or sankalpa-roop body (form) is the primeaval body (form) of everything. As a result of the firm practice of this ideation (sankalpa), the gross body is experienced and the true form, or Atma, is forgotten.

maya: illusion
vasanas: latent tendencies/ tendencies or desires/ impressions of the past that remain embedded in one's consciousness
Universe = 1. andaj - that which is born of egg
2. Jarajuj - that which is placental
3. Swedaj - that which is sweat born
4. Udbhijj - that which sprouts from beneath the ground
karma: actions
gyan: knowledge
Atmagyan: knowledge of the Self
Atma = gyan-swaroop - consciousness or the state of knowledge
yajna: sacrificial ritual
asuras: demnons
vivek: discrimination
chitta:an ideation/modification in consciousness
Brahm: consciousness
Sat: truth/ the Real satyam - truth
asat: the unreal
vichar shakti: power of introspection/contemplation
vichar-roop siddhi: power of contemplation
purusha:signifies Atma - "that which sees"
purushartha: endeavor/ an endeavor or activity which is done for Atma/ efforts to stabilise chitta in Atma according to the directions of sages/saints/scriptures = purushartha
dairva = the purushartha of previous births becomes the daiva of the present birth
Brahmswaroop: the absolute or unmodified state
prarabdha: bright/fortunate destiny
satsang: holy company or association with the truth
sat-shastra: study of holy scriptures
antahkaran: purity of mind/a pure mind
vikalpa: errors (in perception/understanding - brought about by avidya)
bhoga: indulgence/enjoyment/experience
shama: quiescence - quiet/stillness/ eveness of mind
-the method by which one abandons all desires and remains contented with what one gets in the normal course of things according to prarabdha, without feelings of joy or sorrow
dama: control of the senses
- the method by which one controls one's prana - vital force - and aquires mastery over one's senses
dama and shama are the two ways to renounce bhoga

dhyan: concentration/ the capacity to measure (according to J.Krishnamurti)
Atma-tattva: the Absolute
tattva - essence/teaching/truth
santosh: contentment

shama, santosh, vichar and satsang - are all intimately related - focus on one and the other's naturally follow - they are essential qualities for the journey to free oneself ignorance

abhyas: practice

The mind is brought to a quiet state through (i) vairagya - dispassion (ii) vichar (contemplation) and (iii) abhyas (practice).

dharma: religion
artha: wealth
kama: pleasure/ desire for pleasure
ananda: bliss
bhava: a state of mind
shubh: virtuous state of mind
ashubh: viscious state of mind
Paramatma: the Supreme Self
gyani - a wise being
agyani - an ignorant being
Vedas - knowledge/scriptures
hrdaya - the heart - that which does not change
klesa -
gunas - the constituent quality of the mind:- there are 3 of them
1. sattva, 2. rajas 3. tamas
purusa - that which sees/which does not change
samadhi - becoming one with God; state of meditation in which only the object of meditation is apparent; total absorption with the object of focus
totally absorbed, attentive, free of distraction
kaivalya -
duhkha - suffering

In contrast to other Indian systems of philosophy that state that nothing is real except God, Patanajali's position is that everything in a person's experience is sat - the "truth" or "reality," and cannot be denied. Even duhkha is sat and is not something to be ashamed of or denied.

Krishnamachyra used to say: "Thank God for dukha." - which he described as "the unavoidable motive for practice."

muni - sage
jiva - the self or seer
tapas - process of removing impurities; meditation; discipline; austerity
Upanisad - essence of the Veda
Puraka pranayama - emphasis on inhalation
Recaka pranayama - the exhalation is lengthened whilst the inhalation remains free
Khumbhaka pranayama - focus is on breath retention. On inhalation/exhalation/both.
anuloma - refers to something that follows the normal way
Nadi Sodhana - technique for lengthening exhalation + inhalation
breathe through nostrils, do not use throat at all
Sodhana - "cleansing"
nadi - vein or passage through which the breath and energy flow (ie prana router)
Sitali -
Kapalabhati -
Bhastrika -

raga - attraction/making demands
dvesa - repulsion/rejecting things
asmita - ego
abhinivesa/bhoga - fear
Muladhara - "that which is the basis of everything"
svadharma - the right duty at the right time
asrama - station of life (4 asrama - each with a significant stage)
1. brahmacaryaasrama - "car" - to move "brahma" - highest truth
- Most important responsibility was to seek a teacher to educate oneself
2. grhastasrama ("grh" - home)
- Most important duty in this stage of life was to marry and have a family
3. vanaprasthasrama - "vana" - "forest"
- In this stage one has fulfilled one's duties to one's family and one is supposed to free oneself from social and domestic obligations - so as to spend more time in calm and tranquility and to focus on God. There is a certain degree of detachment operating. Learning to live with the bare minimum (mental detachment).
4. Sanyasa-asrama - detatchment is they accept what is to come (leaving the body etc)

varna - something that describes
rajas - to be hyperactive
tamas - dullness
sattva - equanimity
prakriti - nature/mind (everything outside of purusha)

Prakriti can be used in two ways 1. to be enjoyed/suffered - ie pleasure of the senses etc
2. to get to the highest state of realization
(where one is not interested in the fruits of one's actions)

ie the mind is an instrument that can be used for liberation or to feed the klesa's

bheda - the differences in different persons
brhmana = expansion
langhana = constriction
asastra-sastra-cikitsa = surgery without instruments
chit - that which has consciousness/absolute order - ie purusa
chitam - that which does not have consciousness/ does not have mind
(Purusha - "that which sleeps")
samadhi - 1. understanding correctly
2. merged, without separation
nirkalpa = no change/no creation/no imagination/no thought


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